Collective violence and construction of peace culture in the Basque Country: two experiences of memory, recognition and forgiveness

  • Nekane Basabe University of the Basque Country, Spain
  • Miren Harizmendi University of the Basque Country, Spain / Bakeola, Fundación EDE, Spain
  • José Joaquín Pizarro Carrasco University of the Basque Country, Spain
  • Saioa Telletxea University of the Basque Country, Spain
  • Pablo Castro-Abril University of the Basque Country, Spain
  • Sonia Padoan University of the Basque Country, Spain
Keywords: collective violence, peace intervention, intergroup forgiveness, empathy, self-transcendent emotions


Post-conflict societies must confront the past and build a culture of peace. Two interventions are presented here in the context of the Basque Country after the cessation of violence. The first, an intervention with the participation of victims of terrorism, where participants (N = 280 Mage = 19.83 SD = 1.29) were assigned to intervention and control groups. Results showed that participation in the programme produced more favourable attitudes towards intergroup forgiveness, intergroup empathy, and the mediating effect of self-transcending emotions. Second, the Citizenship Processes programme of memory and recognition (N = 31 Mage = 19.48 SD = 3.91). Results showed an increase in forgiveness, intergroup empathy and a change in outgroup emotions from before to after the intervention. The impact of both programmes was medium-high and the relevance of combining narratives that avoid competitive victimisation and promote peaceful intergroup attitudes is discussed.

Received: 14 September 2021
Accepted: 22 November  2021


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How to Cite
Basabe, Nekane, Miren Harizmendi, José Joaquín Pizarro Carrasco, Saioa Telletxea, Pablo Castro-Abril, and Sonia Padoan. 2021. “Collective Violence and Construction of Peace Culture in the Basque Country: Two Experiences of Memory, Recognition and Forgiveness”. Deusto Journal of Human Rights, no. 8 (December), 103-30.