Addressing Multicultural Conflicts: An emphasis on procedural fairness

Eva Brems

Abstract


This paper examines the procedural fairness dimensions of approaches to multicultural conflicts. The paper explains the findings of procedural fairness research in social psychology and explores its relevance for the field of (human rights) law, and for the setting of multicultural conflicts. It argues that there are strong reasons in favour of seeking to optimize procedural fairness —with its criteria of participation, trustworthiness, neutrality and respect— across all types of procedures that address multicultural conflicts. The paper illustrates these criteria through three reallife cases, concerning multicultural conflicts that occurred in Belgium in recent years. The paper furthermore explores the relationship between the normative implications that may be drawn from empirical procedural fairness research and existing procedural fairness norms in human rights law.

Received: 21 June 2017
Accepted: 10 October 2017
Published online: 31 January 2018


Keywords


human rights; multicultural conflicts; procedural fairness; Travelers; niqab; asylum seekers; racism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Brems, Eva. 2013. “Procedural protection: an examination of procedural safeguards read into substantive Convention rights”. In Shaping Rights in the ECHR; The Role of the European Court of Human Rights in Determining the Scope of Human Rights, Brems, Eva & Janneke Gerards (Eds.). 137-161. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brems, Eva, Emmanuelle Bribiosa, Isabelle Rorive & Sébastien Van Drooghenbroeck.2012. “Le port de signes religieux dans l’espace public: verité à Strasbourg, erreur à Genève”. Journal des Tribunaux, vol. 131ème année, no.6489: 602-603.

Brems, Eva, Yaiza Janssens, Kim Lecoyer, Saïla Ouald Chaib & Victoria Vandersteen. 2012. “Wearing the Face Veil in Belgium; Views and Experiences of 27 Women Living in Belgium concerning the Islamic Full Face Veil and the Belgian Ban on Face Covering”. Research Report, available online at http://www.hrc.ugent.be.

Brems, Eva & Laurens Lavrysen. 2013. “Procedural Justice in Human Rights Adjudication: the European Court of Human Rights”. Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 35: 176-200.

Brems, Eva & Janneke Gerards (Eds.). 2017. Procedural Review in Fundamental Rights Cases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burke, Kevin & Steve Leben. 2007. “Procedural Fairness: A Key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction”. Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association, vol. 44, n. 1-2: 4-25.

Christoffersen, Jonas. 2009. Fair Balance: Proportionality and Primarity in the European Convention on Human Rights. Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Delgrange, Xavier. 2013. “Quand la burqa passé à l’Ouest, la Belgique perd-elle le Nord?”. In Quand la burqa passé à l’Ouest. Enjeux éthiques, politiques et juridiques, Olivier Roy and David Koussens (Eds.). 197-236. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

Gangl, Amy. 2003. “Procedural Justice Theory and Evaluations of the Lawmaking Process”. Political Behavior, vol. 25, n. 2: 119-149.

Gerards, J. 2017. “Procedural review by the ECtHR – a typology”. In Procedural Review in Fundamental Rights Cases, Brems, Eva & Janneke Gerards (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Greacen, John M. 2008. “The Court Administrator’s Perspective: Research on ‘Procedural Justice’—What are the Implications of Social Science Research Findings for Judges and Courts?”. In Future Trends In State Courts 2008. 111-114. Williamsburg, VA: National Centre for State Courts.

Harris, David J., Michael O’Boyle, Edward Bates & Carla Buckley. 2009. Law Of The European Convention On Human Rights. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Hennette-Vauchez, Stéphanie. 2010. “La burqa, la femme et l’Etat, Réflexions inquiètes sur un débat actuel”. Raison Publique (mercredi 12 mai). www.raison-publique.fr/la-burqa-la-femme-et-l-Etat.html.

Hunter-Henin, Myriam. 2012. “Why the French Don’t Like the Burqa: Laïcité, national Identity and Religious Freedom”. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 61, n. 3:1-27.

Leane, Geoffrey W.G. 2011. “Rights of ethnic Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Has France Gone too far in Banning Muslim Women from wearing the Burka?” Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 33: 1032-1061.

Levi, Margaret, Audrey Sacks & Tom Tyler. 2009. “Conceptualizing Legitimacy, Measuring Legitimating Beliefs”. American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 53: 354-375.

Leventhal, Gerald S. 1980. “What Should be Done with Equity Theory?”. In Social exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, Kenneth J. Gergen, Martin S. Greenberg and Richard S. Willis (Eds.). New York: Plenum Press.

Lind, E. Allan and Tom R. Tyler. 1988. The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Plenum Press.

Nanwani, Shaira. 2011. “The Burqa Ban: An Unreasonable Limitation on Religious Freedom or a Justifiable Restriction? ”. Emory International Law Review, vol. 25: 1431-1475.

Nussbaum, Martha C. 2012. The New Religious Intolerance. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England: Harvard University Press.

Østergaard, Kate, Margit Warburg & Birgitte Schepelern Johansen. 2014. “Niqabis in Denmark: When politicians ask for a qualitative and quantitative profile of a very small and elusive subculture”. In The Experiences of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law, Eva Brems (Ed.). 42-76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ouald Chaib, Saïla. 2012. “Suku Phull v. France rewritten from a procedural justice perspective: Taking religious minorities seriously”. In Diversity and European Human Rights: Rewriting Judgments of the ECHR, Eva Brems (Ed.). 218-239. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ouald Chaib, Saïla and Eva Brems. 2013. “Doing minority justice through procedural fairness: face veil bans in Europe”. Journal of Muslims in Europe, n. 2: 1-26.

Thibault, John W. & Laurens Walker. 1975. Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis.New York: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Tyler, Tom R. 1988. “What Is Procedural Justice?: Criteria Used by Citizens to Assess the Fairness of Legal Procedures”. Law and Society Review, vol. 22, n. 1: 103-136.

Tyler, Tom R. 2001. “Public Trust and Confidence in Legal Authorities: What Do Majority and Minority Group Members Want from the Law and Legal Institutions? ”. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, vol. 19: 215-235.

Tyler, Tom R. 2006. Why People Obey The Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Tyler, Tom R. 2007. “Procedural Justice and the Courts”. Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association, vol. 44, n. 1/2.

Tyler, Tom and Yuen Huo. 2002. Trust in the Law. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Winet, Evan D. 2012. “Face-Veil Bans and Anti-Mask Laws: State Interests and the Right to Cover the Face”. Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, vol. 35: 217-251.

Van Sasse van Ysselt, Paul. 2010. “Over het verbod op het dragen van een gezichtssluier en van andere gelaatsbedekkende kleding”. Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, vol 1, n. 3: 5-28.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18543/djhr-2-2017pp13-47

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 University of Deusto